For most purposes, you see brown stock, and white stock. (Fish stock is very similar to white stock, just a shorter cooking time, and court boullion is a poaching liquid, not a stock proper.)
White stock is anything made from unroasted bones that comes out with a light color—chicken stock is what most people think of, but in truth it can be from veal bones, pork, lamb, whatever your kitchen furnishes.
Brown stock is made from roasted bones, and tomato product is added to the stock during cooking as well. Typically, brown stock is a beef or veal stock, but again, as with white stocks, you find everything from brown chicken stock to brown pork stock.
My project in the kitchen today is brown beef stock, preparing for my family's thanksgiving dinner (For which I am cooking a not-so-steampunk dish, "Naughty Red Braised Short Ribs of Beef.")
|Mirepoix and Parsley|
To yield 1 gallon/3.8 liters
5 lb (2.5 kg) bones
1 lb (500 g) mirepoix (1/2 lb onion, 1/4 lb carrot for brown, leek for white, 1/4 lb celery)
1.5 (5.75 l) gal water
1/4 tsp (1.25 ml) thyme
1 bay leaf
1/4 tsp (1.25 ml) peppercorns
8 parsley stems
8 oz (250 g) tomato product (brown stock only)
|Chicken stock will produce a foam|
that needs to be skimmed off.
For Brown stock, you begin by roasting the bones at 425°F/218°C/Gas Mark 7 for 1 hour, then turn the heat down to 325°F/162°C/Gas Mark 3 for 2 more hours.
Once they are roasted, remove them from the roasting pan and reserve a small amount of the fat from the pan. Place the bones in your stockpot, cover with cold water, and bring to a boil. Skim what scum rises.
|Roasted bones in water|
Simmer for 8-10 hours, minimum, and then strain through cheesecloth and chill.